Monday, March 16, 2020
Infotech is a publicly owned company that provides data processing, information and information technology services to customers The WritePass Journal
Infotech is a publicly owned company that provides data processing, information and information technology services to customers Introduction Infotech is a publicly owned company that provides data processing, information and information technology services to customers IntroductionINFOTECHÃ¢â¬â¢S MAIN KM STRENGH ANDWEAKNESSESCONLUSIONÃ CONCLUSIONRelated Introduction INFOTECH is a publicly owned company that provides data processing, information, and information technology services to customers in the public and private sectors in South America. It is one the largest information technology services companies one of the top non-financial companies in the region. Its 1999 revenues were about $480 million. It operates as a private enterprise while proving critical services to national, state, and local government. This mandate means that Infotech must seek efficiency, effectiveness, and quality in the delivery of services to its mandated public customers. In addition to the data processing and infrastructure management services that it provides, Infotech was involved in the development for the national government, public key facilities for secure online commerce, and a secure online export sales portal. Infotech also has a latitude to develop revenue through delivery of products and services to a new customers. The company has to be proven adaptability and entrepreneurial in an environment of scarce financial resources. It has undergone significant downsizing in the last fifteen years, passing from 22,000 to 8,600 employees. To achieve greater customersÃ¢â¬â¢ responsiveness and increase added value, in 1995 infotech recognized into units dedicated to business management, infrastructure management, and corporate delivery process. Knowledge management practices are considered key to success delivery of the services, and infotechÃ¢â¬â¢s executives have given high visibility to Knowledge management. Infotech has sought to determine what it knows and what it needs to know, who process the knowledge and who is need to use it.and how the knowledge can be shared within the organization and with customers and suppliers. It has undertaken to map organizational knowledge and competences, identify best practices and communities of practice, and diffuse knowledge internally through teachingÃ and communication. The result of the practice has shown that Infotech has mastered several of the formal technology tools, discourse, and organizational features and processes of knowledge management, but it still faces challenges regarding the development of the supportive internal culture and internal business processes necessary to sustain the knowledge management capability or drive demonstrable benefits from it. Appraisal of InfotechÃ¢â¬â¢s main KM needs underlines the importance, to this organization, of development initiatives to institute cultural change within the organization, to improve the strategic planning and investment processes and asset valuation metrics, and to strengthen internal knowledge transfer processes, including those relating to knowledge management practices. INFOTECHÃ¢â¬â¢S MAIN KM STRENGH AND WEAKNESSES INFOTECH managers made a practice on the knowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢s management capability,as seen by itÃ¢â¬â¢s managers. INFOTECH main KM strength, according to its managers, lie in its ability to Ã¢â¬Å"learn with the environmentÃ¢â¬ (learn from interaction with custometrs and suppliers), as seen by these managers. Is also on the quality of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s information infrastructure. InfotechÃ¢â¬â¢s managers consider that the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s KM shortcomings are areas having to do with culture, strategy, KM roles, HR management, and performance measurement. In the next part we have explained the INfotech main capabilities along each organization dimension of knowledge management. Below we explain a table in which there are six or seven statements representing the greatest strength and weaknesses as determined by the panels of Infotech managers. CHARLES H.DAVIS AND FERNANDO PACHEO STRENGHS: Table : average strength of infotechÃ¢â¬â¢s main KM capability in seven dimensions (3=strong, 2=medium, 1=weak Learning with the environment 2.3 Information systems 2.3 Management of human resource 1.9 Organizational structure and roles 1.9 Senior management vision and strategy 1.9 Organization cultures and values 1.8 Measuring results 1.8 Learning with the environment, as shown in the table, same wise the Infotech managers consider that it has developed strong competencies in using its upstream, downstream, and lateral relationships with customers, suppliers, and allienc partners to improve its value proposition. On the other hand there are clear limits to InfotechÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic positioning within its value network, Infotech appears not to work well with the competitors, nor does it learn from its employees ; non work-related activities, Moreover it does not seek out demanding customers, thereby depriving itself of learning opportunities. TABLE: Learning with the environment: InfotechÃ¢â¬â¢s main KM strengths and weaknesses (3=strong, 2=medium, 1=weak) We frequently partners with suppliers to improve the value we deliver to the customers 3.0 Our product development process explicitly includes our customers 3.0 We form alliance with organization that complement our skills sets as an alternative to doing everything 3.0 We view collaborating with competitors to grow the industry as a good thing. 1.6 We encourage the people to think about how their non-work activities could benefit the organization 1.2 We may refuse to work for people if doing the work does not build knowledge that we can use in other ways. 1.0 INFORMATION SYSTEMÃ¢â¬ ¦..InfotechÃ¢â¬â¢s managers regard the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s IT infrastructure as a source of strength in knowledge management. Infotech information systemÃ¢â¬â¢s mission, Infotech personal are positive about IT tools, however, InfotechÃ¢â¬â¢s informations system are largely unidirectional. They deliver information to the users, but it is awkward and inconvenient to make contributions to infotechÃ¢â¬â¢s repositories of knowledge content. ProcessesÃ for the contributing to the organizational stock of knowledge are not well defined and are not a part of the normal work routine. Established the routines involve unidirectional distribution from the central repository. Moreover, it is not clear who is responsible for maintain the distribution knowledge in Infotech or what the incentives for sharing knowledge might be. TABLE:3 Information system: InfotechÃ¢â¬â¢s main KM strength and weaknesses People in our organization can use the information they get to improve their work 3.0 We view the information technology as a tool to help us get our work done 3.0 We acknowledge the individual contribution to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s repositories are seamlessly integrated into work 1.4 Processes for contribution knowledge to the organization linking it to the original author 1.4 Management of human resources, InfotechÃ¢â¬â¢s members, including itÃ¢â¬â¢s IT professionals are the member of itÃ¢â¬â¢s a collective bargaining unit. The firm has developed a very strong orientation towards deskilling and redeploying its employees before hiring new employees or downsizing its work force. These features of Infotech are regarded as a strength. However, Infotech has serious shortcomings when its come to fostering learning among the employees. The training that they offers is also a strength of it. A better information service is also a major strength of Infotech. TABLE:Ã WEAKNESSES When a new opportunities arises we first try to restore our existing skills before we hire a lot of new people 3.0 Before we terminate the people ,we try to determine if their skills and expertise can be used elsewhere. 3.0 we prefer to use the resources and likes we have in places when testing a new business situations. 3.0 We used theÃ work related games and simulation to think more clearly about our business situation 1.0 People who refused to share knowledge do not get certain organizational benefits 1.0 The performance appraisal system recognizes and rewards knowledge sharing behavior. 1.0 The organization has legitimate sharing knowledge by giving people time to do it. 1.0 Organization structure and roles: Infotech managers thinks that the firm is capable of targeting resources on groups of specialists as needed. It is also strong in moving people into face-to-face situations n order to transfer tactics knowledge and in general infotechÃ¢â¬â¢s employees finds its virtual offices capable of well developed. In other words they find it relatively easy to access the informations and documents that they need for their work, wherever they happen to be. On the other hand infotech need to expand service of delivery by its informations specialists, especially with respect to information that is outside the organization. The firm,s knowledge management roles need to be better artichecture. Meeting are regarded as too structured to permit creative problem solving. CONLUSION The challenge faced by the infotech is to define a number of KM initiatives that addresses identified shortcomings and visibly accumulate KM capability withinÃ the firm. On the basis of rapid appraisal reported here, a short list of KM initiatives might include documentation and sharingÃ¢â¬â¢s, via face-to-face meetings and through an intranet, of effective, in-place KM practices and processes in some areas of importance to the firm =, such as business development, human resource management, or information management. Formal knowledge management roles might be established within the firm. This might involve appointment of the chief knowledge officer or the establishment of KM design and implementations team, each charted with mandates and deliverable. Finally, it seems advisable for Infotech to develop strategic learning initiatives on the pilot basis, with a view of making them models for later initiatives. These strategic learning initiatives, in addition to their substantive goals, should aim to address the cultural and organizational features that are deemed to be hinder development of knowledge management capabilities in Infotech, such as incentives for knowledge sharingand consequences of failure. More generally, infotech needs to address the issues of internal cultural change, and and explore the ways to create and sustain cultural values that are supportive of new knowledge management practices and processes. 1-Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã INNOVATION MANAGEMENT Ã A simple definition of innovation Ã¢â¬Å"Bringing New Ideas to LifeÃ¢â¬ In its simple definition, innovation is coming up with ideas and bringing them to life. Hatching ideas is the Ã¢â¬Å"creativeÃ¢â¬ part, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s essential. After all, no ideas, no chance for innovation, often, in common parlance, the words creativity and innovation are used interchangeably. They shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be, because while creativity implies coming up with ideas, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the Ã¢â¬Å"bringing the ideas to lifeÃ¢â¬ piece of this simple definition that makes innovation the distinct undertaking it is. PURPOSE OF INNOVATION Create new customer-perceived value To drive growth via innovation required that your ideas do something be benefit customers: create new values. Value encompasses the equality and uniqueness of the product and service , and the degree to which it satisfied the customers need or problem. Value is also the customer service and add-service provided as part of the sale, together with the price of the offering or service. The purpose of innovation is to create new customers-perceived value. If customers perceived value in your new offering, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll pay you for it. This is the challenge companies face with the respect to innovation : how do we develop ideas that intended to create new value for our customers? Before we address that question, we need to further differentiate the types and degrees of innovation. THREE TYPES OF INNOVATION There are three types of innovation that are: product, process, and strategy. In the highlyÃ competitive, rapidly evolving environment of the 21st century, achieving rates of growth that are uncommon in your industry means that you must be able to manage innovation in these this three distinct arenas. Each arena is critical, and being adopt in only one of them is likely not sufficient to achieve the growth payoff from innovation. Lets take a careful look at these arenas. TYPE 1: PRODUCT INNOVATION Products has been traditionally been defined as tangibles, physical or raw material ranging from tooth past to steel beams, to computers to industrial adhesives, from jet aircraft to automobile to soybeans. All the objects around you at this moments that were manufactured by a company constitute products. But to confuse a matter bit, in recent years, service sector firms (healthcare, insurance, services, financial services, professional services, to name of few) have been begun to refer to their offerings as Ã¢â¬Å"productÃ¢â¬ as well. When Merrill Lynch introduced its highly successful cash management account in the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s this Ã¢â¬Å"productÃ¢â¬ vaulted this service company to the top of its industry. Adding to the breakdown in traditional boundaries, product manufacturers increasingly surround their products with services, for instance, when car manufacturing agent offer emergency roadside assistance. General motors sells cars, but customer buy certain of its automobiles with services as part of the deal. Onstar, an onboard global positioning satellite-enabled communication channels, gives GM customers the ability to know exactly where on the Earth they are and to summon emergency help if they need it. Despite the recent trend of services firms and manufacturing alike to use the term products to described their offerings, services and service businesses Ã¢â¬Å"productÃ¢â¬ tend to be different. Foremost among them, they can often be intangible as opposed to tangible and physical (an insurance policy as opposed to a snowboard). They also be tend to produced and consumed at the same time and to involve a higher degree of human involvement in their delivery (think health-care and hospitality). And they tend to be difficult or impossible to stop imitation through the use of patents. While there are differences , products, and services have been common traits, especially when it comes to the subject of innovation. We offer or used the term product to described the offering of both types of firms. And now for this definition: product/service innovation is the result of bargaining to life a new way to solve the customers problem that benefit the both the customers and sponsoring company. TYPE 2: PROCESS INNOVATION Process innovations increases bottom-line profitability, reduce costs, raise productivity, and increase the employee job satisfaction. The customers also benefits from this type of innovation by virtue ofÃ a stronger, more consistent product or service value delivery. The unique trait about process innovations is that they are most often out of view of the customers; they are Ã¢â¬Å"back officeÃ¢â¬ only when a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s processes fail to enable the firm to deliver the product or service expected does the customer become the aware of the luck of effective process. For manufacturing companies, processes innovations include such things as integrating new productds manufacturing methods and technologies that lead to advantage in cost , quickly, cycle time, development time, speed of delivery, or ability to mass-customized products, and services that are sold with those products. Such a innovation is simply important and will continue to be. Process innovations enable service firms to introduce Ã¢â¬Å"front officeÃ¢â¬ customer service improvements and add new services, as well as new Ã¢â¬Å"productÃ¢â¬ that are visible to the customer. When fed-axe introduced its unique tracking system in 1986, customers was only a tiny wand, used by drivers to scane the packages. Yet while the rest of this sophisticated system was invisible, customers could Ã¢â¬Å"seeÃ¢â¬ immediately that they could track now their packaging at every point from sender to receiver, and this added the value to their services experience and gave Federal Express a temporary advantage. Process innovation will continue to be vitally important to company growth for the simple reason that without the process excellence, product or strategy innovation is impossible to implement. Indeed, while thousands of books have been written about varying methods of process improvements (read, innovation), the innovation process, unlike say the product development process, is untrammeled territory. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the innovation process itself is, in essence, the subject of this whole topic. TYPE 3: STRATEGY INNOVATION Strategy innovation is all about changing the current industry methods of creating customer value in order to meet newly emerging customers need, add additional value, and create new markets and new customers groups for the sponsoring company. In contrast to the processes innovations, which are behindÃ the scenes and largely unseen byÃ the customers, strategy innovation directly touches the customers. Strategy innovation results in new approaches to marketing or advertising your offerings, in introducing new sales methods, and in new approaches or enhancements to customers service or market positioning. Strategy innovation results when your firm changes the customers groups it targets and how it does goes to the market,Ã meaning how it distributes its offerings to the end consumers. A key element of strategy innovation is occurs when a firm decides to markets its existing products, services, or expertise to its existing customers groups. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what defend contractors Hughes Electronics did when it began its DirectTV division in the early 1990,s using its expertise with the satellite began its beaming cable channels and movies to home satellite dishes. More over commonly, when a firm such as a traditional retailer decides to additionally sell its wares via the web, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy innovation. Much of the highly visible innovation occurring in business today is strategy innovation, and much, but no means all of it involve the exploitation of new technology. Dell Computers very business model is a prime example of strategy innovation because it represents a dramatically different way of manufacturing and selling personal computers. Dell chose not to distributes its products through the then-standard channelÃ to whole sellers or resellers its products through the then-standard channel who sold to the retailers, who then sold to the end consumers. Instead Dell sold directly to end-consumers. Other innovation rouding out Dells contrary business model were strategic in nature as well: from the beginning, Dell did not manufacturer a single computer till it received a customers order, rather than creating an inventory of standardized products to be stored until sold in one warehouse or another. Similarly, firms ranging from EBay to Amazon.com represent strategy innovation when compared to the way their respective industries traditionally did business. While these and many other strategy innovations relied on technology to change the game, not all strategy innovation is based on technology. Southwest Airline was a strategy innovator in the airline business. Its business model is based on offering customers low fares in exchange for their giving up such amenities as reassigned seating, other value-added services- all aspects of SouthwestÃ¢â¬â¢s business model that different from competitors. Price club retailing, a strategy innovation . category pioneered ware-house club retailing, a strategyÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Category killers with names like office depot, home depot, staples, borders, pets mart, IKEA, and compUSA, all pioneered new business models in their time traditional merchants were caught flat- footed in the 1980s when Wal-Mart pioneered a new business model and customers beganÃ voting for what they perceived to be a superior value proposition, killing off traditional competitors. Wal-MartÃ and other offered everyday low pricing to lure customers with a perception of greater value. As a result of their success, many traditional department stores and merchants were forced out of business. NOT ALL INNOVATIONS JUMPED-START GROWTH Not all innovations in these three arenas accelerated growth to the same extent. The degree to which an innovation adds value or creates new value for customers is the degree to which it adds to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s bottom line. What innovation-adept companies strive for, in addition to ongoing processes that keep the pipeline full, are high-potential ideas in each of these arenas. The ideas that changes the rules of competition. Ideas that moves the growth needle! Not all innovations, of course, have an equal impact on customers, and certainly not on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s rate of growth or wealth-creating ability. All products, processes, and strategy innovations can be categorized further into three basics degree: incremental, substantial, and breakthrough. INCREMENTAL INNOVATION While small or even insignificant in degree of financial impact to the firms bottom line, incremental improvements can engender greater customer satisfaction increase the product or service efficiency and otherwise have positive impact. Similarly, process innovation of incremental degree increase productivity and lower cost for the firm. Incremental innovations have this in customer in common: they seldom require more than required changes in the customers or company behavior to implement. 3MÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction of new color post-it.not qualifies as an incremental product innovation, while post-it notes represented a breakthrough product innovation. Implementing a suggestion program required employees to change behavior very little since submitting ideas is optional. In the service sector, incremental innovation occurs when a hotel simplifies its guest check in producer a supermarket chain makes check approval easier than summoning the managerÃ¢â¬â¢ a bank redecorates its lobby; a retirement home upgrades its first class cabin to include fully reclining sleeper seats. SUBSTANTIAL INNOVATION Substantial innovation are mid-level in significance both to customers who benefit from them and to the sponsoring company that believe that they will significantly help the firm to grow and createÃ new wealth. Substantial innovation of the product or service variety fall short of being breakthroughÃ but enable and ensure that the organization meets or exceeds its goals to grow the business, increase market shares and lower its costsof doing the business (substantial level process innovation). Substantial improvement in your existing products or services or introducing new-to-company products and services represents significant improvement for the both the service providing company and for the customers. BREAKTHROGH INNOVATION New products services or alteration of your strategy that yield a significant increase in revenues and net profits are breakthrough innovations. It is impossible to define in dollars and cents how much revenues an idea must bring to the top line to classify as a breakthrough because it depends on the size of your company and what it takes to significantly growth. So breakthrough must defined but need to be if you are serious about going after them. When we are at chemicals division of royal dutch/shell the answer was $100 million or more to the top line. Process improvement that generates a significant breakthrough in costs or an equivalent increase in product out put are also breakthrough. Breakthrough inventions can sometimes leads to breakthrough the level innovations for numerous companies. Breakthrough inventions are giant leaps forward for human kind that lack proprietary parents and may not provide Ã¢â¬Å"first move advantageÃ¢â¬ to a single company, but instead spawn an entire new industry. The automobile innovation of electricity, the discovery of penicillin, the internet, and the world wide web are all breakthrough inventions. While the automobile was a breakthrough in howÃ people transported themselves from place to place, no single company could claim to have benefited exclusive from having invented it or had the legally the protected right to the market. And itÃ¢â¬â¢s the same with the internet, television, and lots of other products. On the other hand, some of the products, services, processes and business models do have propriety parents and simultaneously give temporary monopoly to the sponsoring firm- it is thisÃ type of innovation that focus on in this whole discussion. TWO BREAKTHROGH EXAMPLE When Gillette, facing intense competition from cheap disposable razors, decide to develop its sensors shaving in the early 1990s, the product became a breakthrough immediately. Radical innovation? Hardly. The market was familiar- men with whiskers. The product category was too familiar. The innovation came into the strategic decision to go-up-market and not compete on price. And it came into the superiorÃ value it delivers to the users and difficult to copy and marketing campaign that was the result of a billion dollar investment.when Volkswagoen decided to lunch an updated, restyled the version of its beetle. That has been discontinued in North American markets due to an inability to meet strict emission standard in the 1970s, the results was an instant breakthrough for Volkswagen AG. Radical innovation? Hardly. Obvious moves for these two companies? Not at the Ã CONCLUSION Only companies that can constantly brings imaginative, value added new products, services and value propositions to the market will survive and grow in a rapid changing economy. Yet, most companied today are frustrated by their ability to turn ideas into profitable realities. Their Ã¢â¬Å"innovationÃ¢â¬ process is almost an oxymoron. In the reality it is ad hoc, piecemeal,seat of the pants and heavily reliance on happy accidents. This is decidedly not the case at a small but a rapidly-growingÃ Ã of companies. In deriving the growth through innovation, acclaimed author and consultant Robert B.Truck takes you behind the scenes inside the 23 innovation vanguard companies to benchmark how they have revamped their innovation approaches for growth profit and competitive advantage. Driving Growth through innovation doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just described their leading edge methods. it show you step-by-step, how to map outÃ and implement your own 21st century innovation .
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Newspaper Op-Ed - Article Example Legislations aim at safeguard the functionality of a given institution. The bill being proposed to allow the patients to choose whether to use experimental drugs, shall mean medical practitioners are have limited control in matters public health. Any action requires an individual to take responsibility. The medical code of ethics means that each doctor or nay other health officer is enshrined by a given set of roles thus must adhere to these rules. This implies that any effect of a given drug to a patient. My allowing the use of experimental drugs will mean that each patient would be liable if the drug negatively affects them. This will mean that the doctors and other medical officers will be reduced to inactive members in public health. This will culminate into malpractices by these officers with knowledge that the existing regulation protects them from any punishment. This will hence undermine the essence of ethical code of conduct. The patients will be subjected to commercialized health system that cares less on practitionersÃ¢â¬â¢ ethics. The bill fails to specify under which circumstances the experimental drugs will be used. The loophole in the bill will create room for the medical practitioners to use these drugs for their own benefits. This will entail using humans as Ã¢â¬Ëguinea pigsÃ¢â¬â¢ in an attempt to create a product that commercially benefit the doctors administering treatment. The use of human in test the raises the question on the ethical components of the experimental drugs. Companies will collaborate with health providers in a scheme to test their drugs on humans. The patients will subject to a series of drugs without their knowledge. The essence of any public health institution is to ensure the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare is protected. The physicians in any facility should ensure any activity improves the wellbeing of their patients. In any terminal illness case there is the question of when should the ending
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Harvard Business Case-Pitney Bowes Inc - Assignment Example The email overload is one of the discovered stresses of the workplaces. It is evident that the founders of Stamps.com did identify the same jobs to be done (Cefkin and Melissa, 2009, p.57). Q 2). The reason that caused the Pitney Bowes team to lose focus on something that did this job, and instead end up with a postage meter at a price point can be discussed below. The reason is when the experts of the company began to predict the advent of the letter less and paperless, Pitney Bowes replied by investing heavily in measures of diversification. The diversification includes the leasing and acquisition of aircraft fleets and trucks. Then the CEO, who came up established postage meter at a price point (Cefkin and Melissa, 2009, p.57). Q 3). The ability of a new business growth can be enhanced by relying on substantial acquisitions to achieve the strategic goals of the enterprise. The reason is that the purchases are cheaper, faster, and less risky than expansion that is organic (Cefkin and Melissa, 2009,
Friday, January 31, 2020
Annotated Bibliographies - Essay Example Onjira and Gilbert (2009) illustrate the affordances of machine-processable competency modeling. They argue that machine processing is invaluable in e-learning and assessment. They emphasize its effectiveness in e-learning. In addition, Onjira and Gilbert (2009) present the competency modelÃ¢â¬â¢s affordances in generating questions, distractors, and adaptive query sequences. In the article, they conclude that using machine-processable competency overcomes many limitations in interoperability, reusability, and portability. They illustrate that printing of non-English characters, deploying computers in language classrooms and developing language software are now possible because of advanced technology. The article by Fischer elaborated the role of technology in language learning. Smith and Schulze (2013) discuss replication while highlighting its benefits and possible causes of misunderstanding. They argue that not all studies can be replicated, but the existence of replication connotes maturity of the field. Rabuzzi illustrates that dismissal state of STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) education is reported every week in the U.S. according to him, the risks in STEM subjects are because of the post-Cold War economic competition (Rabuzzi, 2014). Rabuzzi argues that improving STEM performance will foster talents of citizens as well as retain their world standing. He also argues that erasing the false divide that exists between scientific inquiry as well as humanistic learning will boost science education. Hughes, J. (2013). Descriptive Indicators of Future TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Technology Integration in the PK- 12 Classroom: Trends from a Laptop-Infused Teacher Education Program. J. Educational Computing Research, 48(4) 491-516. Hughes claims that integration of mobile technologies with professional teacher preparation will advance learning from one discipline approach to integrated learning approach. In connection with this claim, Hughes
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Do extramarital affairs help or destroy a marriage? A lot of people say that having such affairs helped them solve the problems they had with their spouses, while other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s marriages are destroyed by them. Do partners feel more comfortable in relationships outside their marriage and what could be the cause of that? Studies conducted by Pittman, who argues that unfaithfulness is not normal or acceptable, have shown that first-time divorce occurs in the wake of an affair; yet its also Pittman that states that Ã¢â¬â¢a crisis of infidelity can reawaken a petrified marriage and therapy can save the adulterous marriageÃ¢â¬â¢, something in total contradiction with our traditional culture. Which should we believe than? Studies by Atwater lead us to believe that the second possibility should be seriously considered; in interviewing women engaged in extramarital affairs, she found that over half of them had improved their relationships with their husbands as a result of the affair. The fact that their needs were being met outside the marriage caused a change in their behavior in the marriage, as one woman reported: Ã¢â¬Å"Since I have this second relationship on-going, I have been able to draw my husband out more and get him to talk more... and to be more open in expressing my feelings with him.... I am slowly but surely trying to bring our relationship up to a level that meets more of my needs.Ã¢â¬ The expressive area seems to be the most troubled one in these marriages, as the unfaithful wives sustained. According to Atwater, extramarital relationships occur because Ã¢â¬Å"we are unrealistic about love and the ability of our spouse to satisfy all our sexual needsÃ¢â¬ . She concludes that there are five completely untrue myths that contribute to our faith in sexual exclusivity: one person will supply all of anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional, social, and sexual needs people grow to love each other more through the years sexual exclusivity comes easily and naturally husbands and wives should be best friends extramarital affairs will destroy a marriage But lets examine this situation from the menÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view as well. Women and men have different expectations in extramarital relationships and while women report that their affairs are less for sexual fulfillment and more for emotional support and companionship, the most frequent reason men give for being unfaithful is either sexual rejection by their wives or the boredom of having repeated sex with the same person.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
The child mental health factors are comprised of: sensory integration, emotional regulation, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Disorder (ODD) and Autism (Michigan Non Profit Association, 2002, p. 6). The children who have been diagnosed as sensitive or under-reactive to all of its five senses are perceived to be easily distracted and are displaying other challenging behaviors such as impulsiveness and problem of proper transition in between certain events (Nelson, 1999 as cited from Michigan Non Profit Association, 2002, p. 6). Other children are unable to regulate their emotions as such they are more prone to emotional outbursts whenever they are frustrated or is angry with someone (Murphy, Eisenberg and Fabes, 1999, as cited from Michigan Non Profit Association, 2002, p. 6). On the other hand, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD) is perceived to be more often present in male children rather than their female counterparts. However, the prevalence of ADHD is hard to recognize because of the usual connotation that children are naturally difficult to deal with most specially during their early stages of development. As such, there is a need to seek the help of psychiatrists and psychologists in order to properly address such a concern (Barreda-Hanson and Kilham, 1997 as cited from Michigan Non Profit Association, 2002, p. 6). The Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is often times found in children who manifest high rates of problematic behaviors. Albeit, it should be noted that since difficult behaviors in juxtaposition with hyperactivity are hard to recognize due to its close resemblance to ADHD (Speltz, McClellan and DeKleyen, 1999 as cited from Michigan Non Profit Association, 2002, p. 6). Children with Autism have difficulties communicating with other people. In other cases, some of them could be virtually unaware of other people surrounding them. Autism usually appears during the age of three and has an incidence of 1 every 500 children (National, 1998 as cited from Michigan Non Profit Association, 2002, p. 6).